Genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in China: epidemiological studies and systematic review

Read:1462022-03-03 10:15:20 

Genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in China: epidemiological studies and systematic review

Rui-Qi Hua, Xiao-Di Du, Xue He, Xiao-Bin Gu, Yue Xie, Ran He, Jing Xu, Xue-Rong Peng, Guang-You Yang


Abstract

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected tropical zoonosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) and remains a major public health concern globally. Here, CE isolates (n = 3310) with clearly defined genotypes and geographical origins in China were retrieved through our epidemiological survey (2016-2020) and systematic review (1992-2020). Existing known genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (E. granulosus s.l.) except for G4 have been found in China, particularly on the Tibetan Plateau, where their genetic diversity is unique to that part of the world. According to the systematic review, genetic compositions of E. granulosus s.l. in China were as follows: E. granulosus (G1, G3), 98.3%; Echinococcus ortleppi (G5), 0.1%; Echinococcus intermedius (G6, G7), 1.4%; and Echinococcus canadensis (G8, G10), 0.2%. Specifically, G1 was responsible for 97.7% of infections and characterized by the broadest host ranges and geographic distributions. Our epidemiological results showed a relatively stable genetic composition of E. granulosus s.l. in sheep and yaks from three CE hyperendemic provinces (Xinjiang, Sichuan, Qinghai). A higher proportion of fertile cysts were found in sheep (287/406, 70.7%) than in yaks (28/184, 15.2%). During the past 29 years, 51 cox1 haplotypes of E. granulosus s.l. were endemic in China. The ancestral haplotype (Hap_2) remained the most common haplotype, 12 relatively common haplotypes were endemic and nine newly reported haplotypes were found during the survey. Overall, our results demonstrate that the compulsory immunization of sheep and the pilot EG95 vaccination campaign in yaks are well matched with the current genotypic situation. In addition to yaks, we advocate for more surveillance of CE isolates from pigs, cattle, goats and camels, since their roles in the transmission and reservation of E. granulosus s.l. have been largely ignored in China.

Keywords: China; Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato; molecular epidemiology; systematic review.

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2022 Feb 9.doi: 10.1111/tbed.14469. Online ahead of print.

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